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Emilio Petrozzi

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Emilio Petrozzi last won the day on January 18

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About Emilio Petrozzi

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    Minor flare

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    Sora FR Italy
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    Astronomy, Linux Administrator

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  1. Perhaps it is a consequence of the solar minimum as described by several authors? ... the analysis of some 53-year record observations of the solar diameter and sunspot positions during the seventeenth century, which lead to the conclusion that the solar diameter was larger and rotation slower during the Maunder minimum [Ribes et al. in 1987]. ... https://arxiv.org/pdf/1804.06930.pdf https://www.nature.com/articles/326052a0
  2. By studying the numbers we get the truth. "If you torture the numbers long enough, they will confess anything!" Gregg Easterbrook https://principia-scientific.org/breaking-key-un-climate-fraudster-makes-concessions-tim-ball-lawsuit/
  3. What do you think of this article published on Nature.com? Article Published: 24 June 2019 Oscillations of the baseline of solar magnetic field and solar irradiance on a millennial timescale V. V. Zharkova, S. J. Shepherd, S. I. Zharkov & E. Popova ... Until recently, solar activity was accepted to be one of the important factors defining the temperature on Earth and other planets. In this paper we reproduced the summary curve of the solar magnetic field associated with solar activity5,6 for the one hundred thousand years backward by using the formulas describing the sum of the two principal components found from the full disk solar magnetograms. In the past 3000 years the summary curve shows the solar activity for every 11 years and occurrence of 9 grand solar cycles of 350–400 years, which are caused by the beating effects of two magnetic waves generated by solar dynamo at the inner and outer layers inside the solar interior with close but not equal frequencies6. The resulting summary curve reveals a remarkable resemblance to the sunspot and terrestrial activity reported in the past millennia including the significant grand solar minima: Maunder Minimum (1645–1715), Wolf minimum (1200), Oort minimum (1010–1050), Homer minimum (800–900 BC) combined with the grand solar maxima: the medieval warm period (900–1200), the Roman warm period (400–10BC) etc. It also predicts the upcoming grand solar minimum, similar to Maunder Minimum, which starts in 2020 and will last until 2055. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-45584-3
  4. Sunspots during the Maunder Minimum. From 1645 to 1700, many years had no sunspots. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/maunder-minimum Solar Irradiance, Cosmic Rays, and Radiocarbon and Berylium Production Rates D.J.Easterbrook Abstract Global temperature changes show excellent correlations with sunspots, total solar irradiance, 14C and 10Be production in the upper atmosphere, and cosmic ray incidence. Periods of global cooling coincided with these changes during the Oort, Wolf, Maunder, Dalton, 1880–1915, and 1945–1977 Solar Minimums. Increased 14C and 10Be production during times of increased cosmic radiation serves as a proxy for solar activity. Increased cloudiness, produced by ionization of aerosols in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, causes increased reflection of incoming solar irradiance and results in cooling of the atmosphere. The amount of cosmic radiation is greatly affected by the sun's magnetic field, so during times of weak solar magnetic field, more cosmic radiation reaches the Earth, creating more cloudiness and cooling the atmosphere. This mechanism accounts for the global synchronicity of climate changes, abrupt climate reversals, and climate changes on all time scales. Thus, cloud-generating cosmic rays provide a satisfactory explanation for both long-term and short-term climate changes. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128045886000148?via%3Dihub
  5. Earth’s Energy Budget G. Kopp, in Comprehensive Remote Sensing, 2018 5.02.5 TSI Effects on Earth Climate Correlations With Solar Variability Evidence for the climate influence of solar cycle irradiance changes is apparent in surface and atmospheric temperatures (Lean 2010; Gray et al., 2010). Global surface-temperature increases of about 0.1°C are associated with irradiance increases during recent solar cycles, with larger regional changes occurring in some locations (Lean and Rind 2008). Solar Changes and the Climate J.S. D'Aleo, in Evidence-Based Climate Science (Second Edition), 2016 2.1 The Sun Plays Direct and Indirect Roles in Climate The Sun changes its activity on time scales that vary from 27 days to 11, 22, 80, 106, 212 years, and more. A more active Sun is brighter due to the dominance of faculae over cooler sunspots, resulting in increased solar irradiance. The amount of change of solar irradiance, based on satellite measurements since 1978 during the course of an 11-year cycle, is only 0.1% (Willson and Hudson, 1988), causing many to conclude that the solar effect is negligible. Cycle 23 has declined 0.15%. Over long cycles since the Maunder Minimum, irradiance changes are estimated to be as high as 0.4% (Hoyt and Schatten, 1997; Lean, 2000; Lockwood and Stamper, 1999; Fligge and Solanki, 2000). However, this does not take into account the Sun's eruptional activity (flares, solar wind bursts from coronal mass ejections, and solar wind bursts from coronal holes), which may have a much greater effect. This takes on more importance since Lockwood et al. (1999) showed how the total magnetic flux leaving the Sun has increased by a factor of 2.3 since 1901. This eruptional activity may enhance warming through ultraviolet-induced ozone chemical reactions in the high atmosphere or ionization in higher latitudes during solar-induced geomagnetic storms. In addition, Svensmark (2007), Palle Bago and Butler (2000), and Tinsley and Yu (2002) have documented possible effects of the solar cycle on cosmic rays and through them, the amount of low cloudiness. Dating Methods I Raymond S. Bradley, in Paleoclimatology (Third Edition), 2015 Radiocarbon Variations and Climate A number of authors have observed that periods of low solar activity, such as the Maunder minimum, correspond to cooler periods in the past (e.g., Eddy, 1977; Lean et al., 1995). As minor variations in radiocarbon production seem to be related to solar activity, it has also been argued that 14C variations are inversely related to worldwide temperature fluctuations (Wigley and Kelly, 1990). This implies that solar activity, radiocarbon variations, and surface temperature are all related, perhaps through fundamental variations in the solar constant (i.e., low solar activity = high 14C production rate = low temperature). If so, then the 14C record itself, as a proxy of solar activity, would provide important information on the causes of climatic change, and indeed, many investigations have simply used the record of 14C or 10Be variations as a proxy for solar irradiance (e.g., Magny, 1993; Bond et al., 2001; Hodell et al., 2001; Neff et al., 2001). https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/maunder-minimum
  6. I think the precise figures still need to be quantified... "The Sun is the predominant source of energy input to Earth. Solar radiation ensures the maintenance of the appropriate range of temperatures for the sustenance of life on Earth, by driving land surface heating, plant productivity, and oceanic and atmospheric circulations. It is also the main driver for several water cycle processes, ranging from evaporation and cloud formation to precipitation, although it can also introduce certain adverse influences, such as harmful ultraviolet radiation and production of ozone through photochemistry. Because of the Sun’s dominant influence on Earth’s function, it is important to accurately measure the solar input to Earth or solar irradiance. Measurement of the total solar irradiance (TSI) is essential for quantifying Earth’s energy budget. NASA has maintained continuous measurement of TSIsince 1978 through successive missions: Nimbus-7/ERB, the ACRIMSat series, SORCE, TCTE, and the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor-1 (TSIS-1), which was launched to the International Space Station on 15 December 2017. With significant technological improvements in TSIS-1 relative to heritage missions, scientists at NASA and the scientific community worldwide expect to refine our knowledge of how much energy we get from the Sun, both in total and spectrally, and how the Sun affects our Earth and various processes that are important to mankind now and in the future". https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2659/four-decades-and-counting-new-nasa-instrument-continues-measuring-solar-energy-input-to-earth/
  7. Reconstruction of Total Solar Irradiance since the Maunder Minimum - L. Balmaceda, Max-Planck-Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung Abstract "Our model successfully reproduces three independent data sets: total solar irradiance measurements available since 1978, total photospheric magnetic flux since 1974 and the open magnetic flux since 1868 empirically reconstructed using the geomagnetic aa-index. The model predicts an increase in the solar total irradiance since the Maunder Minimum of 1.3 Wm2" aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2007/19/aa6725-06/aa6725-06.html
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