Earth’s Energy Budget
G. Kopp, in Comprehensive Remote Sensing, 2018
5.02.5 TSI Effects on Earth Climate
5.02.5.1 Correlations With Solar Variability
Evidence for the climate influence of solar cycle irradiance changes is apparent in surface and atmospheric temperatures (Lean 2010; Gray et al., 2010). Global surface-temperature increases of about 0.1°C are associated with irradiance increases during recent solar cycles, with larger regional changes occurring in some locations (Lean and Rind 2008).
Solar Changes and the Climate
J.S. D'Aleo, in Evidence-Based Climate Science (Second Edition), 2016
2.1 The Sun Plays Direct and Indirect Roles in Climate
The Sun changes its activity on time scales that vary from 27 days to 11, 22, 80, 106, 212 years, and more. A more active Sun is brighter due to the dominance of faculae over cooler sunspots, resulting in increased solar irradiance. The amount of change of solar irradiance, based on satellite measurements since 1978 during the course of an 11-year cycle, is only 0.1% (Willson and Hudson, 1988), causing many to conclude that the solar effect is negligible. Cycle 23 has declined 0.15%. Over long cycles since the Maunder Minimum, irradiance changes are estimated to be as high as 0.4% (Hoyt and Schatten, 1997; Lean, 2000; Lockwood and Stamper, 1999; Fligge and Solanki, 2000).
However, this does not take into account the Sun's eruptional activity (flares, solar wind bursts from coronal mass ejections, and solar wind bursts from coronal holes), which may have a much greater effect. This takes on more importance since Lockwood et al. (1999) showed how the total magnetic flux leaving the Sun has increased by a factor of 2.3 since 1901. This eruptional activity may enhance warming through ultraviolet-induced ozone chemical reactions in the high atmosphere or ionization in higher latitudes during solar-induced geomagnetic storms. In addition, Svensmark (2007), Palle Bago and Butler (2000), and Tinsley and Yu (2002) have documented possible effects of the solar cycle on cosmic rays and through them, the amount of low cloudiness.
Dating Methods I
Raymond S. Bradley, in Paleoclimatology (Third Edition), 2015
220.127.116.11 Radiocarbon Variations and Climate
A number of authors have observed that periods of low solar activity, such as the Maunder minimum, correspond to cooler periods in the past (e.g., Eddy, 1977; Lean et al., 1995). As minor variations in radiocarbon production seem to be related to solar activity, it has also been argued that 14C variations are inversely related to worldwide temperature fluctuations (Wigley and Kelly, 1990). This implies that solar activity, radiocarbon variations, and surface temperature are all related, perhaps through fundamental variations in the solar constant (i.e., low solar activity = high 14C production rate = low temperature). If so, then the 14C record itself, as a proxy of solar activity, would provide important information on the causes of climatic change, and indeed, many investigations have simply used the record of 14C or 10Be variations as a proxy for solar irradiance (e.g., Magny, 1993; Bond et al., 2001; Hodell et al., 2001; Neff et al., 2001).